Different Types & Working Procedure of Excavation Used in Construction

Different Types & Working Procedure of Excavation Used in Construction

Are you preparing to start construction work for a commercial site or a new home? Whether it is for industrial, commercial, or residential construction work, an excavation project needs to be performed to guarantee a strong foundation. Additionally, having a solid foundation can prevent damage from natural disasters and weather disturbances.

If you’re curious about this, keep on reading this blog as we provide you with types of excavation work, procedures for excavation, and the importance of excavation in construction.

Types of Excavation Used In Construction

Excavation is an integral part of any construction. These processes use a variety of tools and techniques to move soil, rocks, and other materials to create cavities and prepare sites for construction. Construction companies use a variety of excavations in their construction. The type of excavation used depends on the material and the purpose.

Excavation by Material

Topsoil Excavation

As the name suggests, this type of excavation involves the removal of the exposed or highest area of ​​the earth’s surface. The excavation method removes vegetation, soil, and any other decaying material that could make the ground unsuitable for supporting structural loads.

Rock excavation

This type of excavation is used to clean surfaces; such as rocky surfaces that impede the construction process. Rock digging is very challenging as compared to the other types. This is because it cannot be done without the use of special equipment and techniques, such as drilling or blasting, to remove rock or clean a hard surface.

Mud digging

Mud is the combination of soil and water, is often undesirable during construction and must be removed. Mud excavation is named after the material being extracted. The mud is moved to another area or spread out to dry.

Earth digging

To create a foundation for buildings and bridges or to build drainage ditches, it is necessary to remove several layers of soil. Earth excavation includes earth removal; the layer below the topsoil, for construction purposes.

Excavation by Purpose

Cut and fill excavation

Also known as stripping excavation, this type of construction excavation is used to clear large areas. The process involves the removal of wide, shallow layers of topsoil, rocks, sand, and other unwanted materials. The procedure may also include the classification of the land.

Trench digging

In this type of excavation, the length of the excavated area exceeds the depth. Trenching is typically used to bury utility lines, install pipes and sewer systems, or lay foundations. With this type of excavation, shallow trenches of less than 6m or deep trenches of more than 6m are made. The techniques used for this type depend on factors such as the purpose, the ground conditions, the number of obstructions, etc.

Basement excavation

The basement is typically an area below ground level. This type of excavation is used when construction is to take place at least partially below ground level. Depending on the size of the property, this type of excavation can be difficult.


Sediment deposits can build up over time underwater, making construction and passage difficult. The dredging process involves excavating and removing sediment and debris from the water to allow easy passage for boats and ships and other construction purposes.

Working Procedure of Excavation

Excavation is the process of moving soil, rocks, or other debris using tools, equipment, or explosives. This includes trenches, wall studs, tunnels, and underground respectively. It is an important activity of the construction project.

  • The first step involved in the excavation is to determine the extent of the soil and clear the site of unwanted plants, shrubs, and plants.
  • The next step is ground setting or laying out, the process of setting excavation lines and center lines into the ground before excavation begins.
  • A maximum of 4 and a minimum of 2 indicators are marked in the corners for the measurement level. These templates are featured on permanent structures such as plinths, roads, or trees. The lines are indicated by lime powder.
  • The excavation depth is fixed using the drawing and benchmarks.
  • Excavation is done manually or mechanically, depending on availability.
  • Excavated soil should be removed from the site or collected around the excavation hole. A distance of at least 1 m must be maintained between the excess soil and the pit so that rain or any other force prevents the soil from entering the pit. The lining of excavated pits should be carried out as specified in the drawings.
  • If the site is in an area of ​​soft soil, shoring should be done to secure the soft soil.
  • If necessary, the construction of dewatering and interconnecting ditches should be planned.
  • For safety reasons, all sides of the building must be closed.

Importance of Excavation in Construction

Having a good foundation does not depend on the quality of the concrete. To ensure that the house is made of compacted soil, it must be dug before construction. Proper excavation can support and promote process stress. This process does not depend on the operation of heavy machinery. It is also important to consider the uniqueness of the house or apartment. Soil moisture, soil stability, water table, and even the quality of the backfill should be checked and inspected before the establishment of the foundation.

Only experienced and skilled excavation contractors in Edmonton can decide which excavation to perform. They can ensure that any future problems with the foundation and the ground, such as separation and breakage, can be avoided.